Here you will be introduced to the terminology of Hindu astrology to enable you to
comprehend the system. The astronomy relevant
to predictive astrology will be discussed in the first place.
ECLIPTIC : Ecliptic is the
apparent path of the Sun.
ZODIAC & ASTROLOGY
Zodiac is an imaginary belt in the heavens extending to 9º on both sides of ecliptic containing 12 signs of 30º each. The first sign starts from 0º of the sign Aries (Mesha) and extends to 30º. Each degree can be divided into 60 minutes, and each minute can be divided into 60 seconds for the purpose of precision in calculations.
From the earth, the signs appear to be moving in a clockwise motion. The earth has two revolutions: one around the Sun which is completed in 365,25 days, and the other around its own axis which is completed in 24 hours. Due to earth's movement around the Sun, when the Sun is viewed in the background of the zodiac it appears from the earth that the Sun moves/rotates at the speed of 1º per day in an anti-clockwise direction. The other revolution of the earth i.e. around its own axis causes rise of all the 12 signs in the horizon or east in a period of 24 hours.
The zodiac is also divided into 27 nakshatras (constellations) consisting of groups of fixed stars. The names and extent of nakshatras in zodiac are being separately indicated in the table appended at the end of the book.
Equinox is the time when the Sun apparently crosses the equator and the day and the night are equal. It is believed that when the Sun touches its equinoctial point of zero degree of Aries, the earth moves westward with reference to a particular constellation. The zodiac seen or measured from the beginning of Aries from the westward moving equinoctial point is known as moving or tropical zodiac. When zero degree of Aries is reckoned from a particular star, the same is known as fixed or sidereal zodiac. The Vedic system of Astrology uses the concept of fixed zodiac and that is why the Sun enters Aries almost on identical dates every year. In the Vedic system of Astrology, when we are speaking of various signs we are actually speaking about the fixed constellations with the same name. The Vedic system of Astrology is known as Nirayana System.
The ayanamsa is the distance between the fixed and the moving zodiacs.
SOLAR TIME :
We measure time based on the concept of the solar day. It is defined as an average time period of the successive passages of the Sun over a given meridian. It is exactly 24 hours and is known as the mean solar day.
SIDEREAL TIME :
The time required for a 360 degree rotation of the earth around its axis, causing a given star in the sky to return to the same position in relation to the earth is known as the sidereal day and this period is about 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds.
Planetary longitude is the angular distance measured eastward on the ecliptic from the starting point of the fixed zodiac and it gives the apparent position of the planet in a particular sign at a given time.
Longitude is the angular distance of any place on the earth's surface, east or west of a standard meridian (e.g. that of Greenwich), measured in degrees up to 180º east or west, or in units of time (1 hour = 15º). With the help of the longitude of a particular place with reference to Greenwich (0º), we calculate the local mean time for that place. As the earth rotates from west to east (anti-clockwise), those places east of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich Time and those to the west will be behind Greenwich Time. For each degree of longitude, there is a difference of four minutes in time.
Latitude is the angular distance on its meridian of any place of the earth's surface from the equator. It is measured in degrees and minutes from the equator towards either the North Pole or the South Pole. The equator represents 0 degree latitude. Latitudes are thus lines drawn parallel to the equator.
Note:Even if you find it difficult to understand astronomical terms, you can proceed with further study. The lack of clear understanding of the astronomical terminology will not create hurdles in your understanding of the Predictive Astrology. Predictive Astrology and Astronomy are two different sciences. Predictive Astrology is based on Astronomy but the deep knowledge of Astronomy is not at all necessary for predictive analysis.
NATAL CHART/BIRTH HOROSCOPE
Natal chart or radical chart or horoscope or natal positions are the positions of the ascendant and planets in various signs as noted for the time of the birth. Natal positions, therefore, are fixed. The planetary positions noted with reference to a particular chart for subsequent periods are known as transits or transit positions. .
Conjunction is the apparent coincidence or proximity of two or more celestial objects as viewed from the earth. The conjunction can be exact or close. If the difference in longitudes happens to be less than one degree, the resulting conjunction is known as an exact conjunction. If the difference in longitudes is within five degrees, the same is known as a close conjunction.
The aspects are partial and full. In the Vedic system of Astrology, we are concerned with only full aspects. Each planet is believed to aspect fully the seventh house, reckoned from the placement of the former.
In addition to this i.e. the seventh aspect, planets posited outside the orbit of the earth as well as Rahu and Ketu have additional special full aspects as under:
aspects third and tenth houses from its location.
b) Mars aspects fourth and eight houses from
c) Jupiter, Rahu and Ketu aspect fifth and
ninth houses from their location.
Planets influence other houses/planets aspected by them favorably or unfavorably, depending upon their functional nature in the horoscope. The principle of exact or close aspect is identical to exact or close conjunction i.e. when a planet casts its aspect on another planet(s) or on the most effective point of house(s) within an orb of one degree, the aspect is known as an exact aspect. If the difference in planetary longitudes is within five degrees, then the aspect is known as a close aspect.
The conjunctions or aspects with more than five degrees of longitudinal difference are wide conjunctions or aspects. These do not have permanent impact in life except the short lived transit influences on the planets involved in wide conjunctions or aspects. The wide aspects give their results in later part of life, say around 60 years or after.
The aspect of the planet will be effective corresponding to the strength of
the planet. If the aspecting planet is weak due to any reason including
debilitation its effectiveness will be weak and limited.
The close aspect of a functional malefic will act as a damaging force and
the close aspect of a functional benefic will act as a helping force.
GENERAL AND PARTICULAR SIGNIFICATIONS OF PLANETS
The general significations of a planet mean the aspects ruled by that planet. For example, the Sun rules father, status of the native, heart, digestive system, etc., irrespective of the lordship of the Sun in a particular nativity. The particular significations of a planet mean the significations of its mooltrikona house, the significations of its natal house and the significations of its transiting house i.e. the house where its mooltrikona sign is placed, the house where the planet is placed in the natal chart and the house where the planet is placed in transit.
The results of the significations of a weak planet fructify with delay and suffer whenever that weak planet is afflicted due to close aspect or conjunction with any functional malefic planet. The natal affliction causes damages in the entire sub-periods of the weak planet and the afflicting planets while the transit affliction cause short term damages during that effective transit influence.
PLANETARY AVASTHAS (STATES)
The planetary avasthas are the conditions
in which a planet is placed. The prominent
avasthas and the results produced are as under :
INFANCY: Whenever the longitude of a planet in a particular sign is less than 5 degrees, it is said to be in the state of infancy. Such a planet is incapable of fully promoting/protecting its general and particular significations.
OLD AGE: Whenever the longitude of a planet in a particular sign is more than 25 degrees, it is said to be in the state of old age. Such a planet is incapable of fully promoting/protecting its general and particular significations.
OWN SIGN: A planet in its own sign is treated as strong and is capable of generating the expected results, provided it is otherwise strong.
The own signs of various planets are as under:
PLANET: OWN SIGN
SUN : LEO
MOON : CANCER
MARS : ARIES, SCORPIO
MERCURY: GEMINI, VIRGO
JUPITER : SAGITTARIUS, PISCES
VENUS : TAURUS, LIBRA
SATURN : CAPRICORN, AQUARIUS
MOOLTRIKONA SIGNS : : A planet in its mooltrikona (MT) sign is treated as very powerful, provided it is otherwise strong.
Under the Systems' Approach, the mooltrikona signs of various planets are as under:
PLANET MOOLTRIKONA SIGN
SUN :L EO
MOON : CANCER
MARS : ARIES
JUPITER : SAGITTARIUS
VENUS : LIBRA
SATURN : AQUARIUS
EXALTATION: The planets are in the state of exaltation in particular signs and give good results by promoting/protecting their general and particular significations, provided they are otherwise strong.
The exaltation signs of various planets
are as under :